Expanded Index

1.0 Introduction to the Research 1
1.1 Why the Research is Important 1
1.2 Purpose of the Research 2
1.3 Introduction to the Case Study 4
1.3.1 Sustainability and Vancouver 4
1.3.2 The Clouds of Change Report 5
1.4 Research Questions 6
1.5 Methods 7

2.0 How Social Change Can Happen 9
2.1 Theories of Social Change 9
2.2 Individual Behaviour 10
2.3 Complexity and Chaos Theory 11
2.4 Incomplete Feedback Loops and Emergent Behaviour 15
2.5 The Role of the Catalyst 17
2.6 Implications for the Research 19

3.0 An Introduction to Barriers 20
3.1 Requirements of Change in a Democracy 20
3.2 How Social Change Can Be Prevented 21
3.2.1 Perceptual/Behavioural Barriers 23
3.2.2 Institutional/Structural Barriers 27
3.2.3 Economic/Financial Barriers 29

4.0 Analysis of the Barriers in the Case Study 31
4.1 Participation Rates and Representation 31
4.2 The Barriers Identified by Interviewees 31
4.2.1 Perceptual/Behavioural Barriers 31
4.2.2 Institutional/Structural Barriers 32
4.2.3 Economic/Financial Barriers 34
4.4 Analysis of the Six Most Commonly Cited Barriers 48
4.5 Analysis of Some Additional Barriers 55
4.5.1 Perceptual/Behavioural 55
4.5.2 Institutional/Structural 69
4.5.3 Economic/Financial 82
4.6 A Comparison to the Victoria Experience 90

5.0 Prescriptions for Overcoming Barriers 92
5.1 A Word About Civicness and Social Capital 92
5.2 Conditions that Facilitate Change 94
5.3 Suggestions for Overcoming Some of the Barriers 97

6.0 Conclusions 103
6.1 Summary 103
6.2 Additional Findings 109
6.3 Suggestions for Further Research 111
Bibliography 114
Appendix A Clouds of Change Status Report 118
Appendix B Qualitative Questionnaire 124
Appendix C Quantitative Questionnaire 128
Appendix D Interview Participants 131